International Security

In the 21st century, the nature of security is changing. This transformation has developed from traditional understandings of hard power politics and physical security to new ways of defining the term to include human, energy and digital security. With such dramatic shifts, and new threats to security, policymakers need to stay updated, all whilst maintaining international relations and diplomatic links with other countries and regions. IDRN hopes to aid understanding by evaluating Europe’s relations with its neighbours, new and evolving threats to citizens, and the impacts of technology on international security and individual privacy.

Italian Political Financing: How Meloni paid her way

Politics is expensive, and whose money a party will accept has consequences. Italy is only one of two European Union Member States in which no public funding is available to any party. In consequence, this forces Italian parties to scrap for funds wherever they can.

The EU and Global Britain

After Brexit, there appears to be a more deliberate attempt from the British Government to sidestep the EU and work directly with European partners, including EU member states, through other diplomatic arrangements.

The Kremlin, ‘Kernenergie’, and the Invasion of Kyiv

An update on the Gazprom, Eastern Europe and the Energy Security Crisis research paper written in November 2020 analysing the political uncertainty and warning of a potential security crisis, seen today in light of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, due to the progression of Nord Stream Pipeline 2 and the involvement of Russian state-owned company, Gazprom.

The State of Cooperation in the Black Sea Region

With many Black Sea countries desiring more EU involvement in the region, it will likely remain a strategic frontier for Europe, Russia and the US in energy security, festering conflicts, trade links, migration and economic developments.

Introduction to the European Union’s Projects in the Horn of Africa

Evaluating the success of the EU’s projects in the region suggests that while the European Union contributes broad efforts to provide aid in the Horn of Africa in a vast number of sectors such as education, employment and infrastructure, making progress in this region of instability and conflict is difficult.

The Integrated Review and what it means for EU-UK foreign policy

Both the EU and UK share a common vision of a rules-based international order, effective multilateralism, open societies, and an open and resilient global economy. This shared worldview should be a good enough objective to work alongside each other and set the space for constructive cooperation.

Sino-European Relations: A Three Point Action Plan

To address Chinese abuse of human rights and level the playing field with Beijing for European business the EU must focus on three key objectives: improving the EU-US relationship; introducing a meaningful Indo-Pacific strategy, and overcoming obstacles preventing a tougher EU approach to Beijing.

What does a Biden Presidency mean for Europe?

The new President-elect of the United States, Joe Biden, has the potential to significantly impact relations with Europe and beyond, but overall this should be met with cautious optimism.

Sino-European Relations: The EU’s China Strategy

There is increasing pressure within the international community for the European Union to adopt a more robust approach towards China in response to the proposed security law in Hong Kong that represents a violation of human rights and contradicts the founding values of the EU.